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Exp Brain Res. 1985;58(2):255-62.

Control of locomotion in marine mollusc Clione limacina. I. Efferent activity during actual and fictitious swimming.


The marine mollusc Clione limacina swims by making rhythmic movements (with a frequency of 1-5 Hz) of its two wings. Filming demonstrated that the wings perform oscillatory movements in the frontal plane of the animal. During both the upward and downward movements of the wing, its posterior edge lagged behind the anterior one, i.e. the wing plane was inclined in relation to the longitudinal axis of an animal. As a result of this inclination, the wing oscillations in the frontal plane produce a force directed forwards. In restrained animals with the body cavity opened (a whole-animal preparation), the wing position, electrical activity in the wing nerve and activity of two identified efferent neurons (1A and 2A) were recorded during locomotory wing movements. There were two bursts of activity in the wing nerve during the locomotory cycle, the first one corresponding to the excitation of efferent neurons controlling the wing elevation, and the second one, to the excitation of efferent neurons controlling the lowering of the wing. Neurons 1A and 2A fired reciprocally at the beginning of the phase of elevating and lowering the wing, respectively. During excitation of one of the neurons, an IPSP appeared in its antagonist. A pair of isolated pedal ganglia of Clione was capable of generating the locomotory rhythm ("fictitious swimming"). In fictitious swimming, as in actual swimming, there were two bursts of activity in the wing nerve per locomotory cycle, and the 1A and 2A neurons fired reciprocally. Homologous neurons from the left and right ganglia fired inphase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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