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J Endocr Soc. 2018 Aug 13;2(10):1109-1130. doi: 10.1210/js.2018-00180. eCollection 2018 Oct 1.

Navigating Systemic Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma: From Standard of Care to Personalized Therapy and Beyond.

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MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.
Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.


Thyroid cancer, with the exception of anaplastic thyroid cancer, typically has very favorable outcomes with the standard therapy. However, those that persist, recur, or metastasize are associated with a worse prognosis. Targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors has shown promise in advanced cases of thyroid cancer, and currently five drug regimens are approved for use in clinical practice in the treatment of differentiated, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, with more options in the pipeline. However, one of the greatest dilemmas is when and how to initiate one of these drugs, and this is discussed herein.


BRAF inhibitors; anaplastic thyroid cancer; differentiated thyroid cancer; immunotherapy; kinase inhibitors; medullary thyroid cancer

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