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Front Immunol. 2018 Feb 15;9:283. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00283. eCollection 2018.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expressing Natural Killer Cells for the Immunotherapy of Cancer.

Author information

1
MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

Abstract

Adoptive cell therapy has emerged as a powerful treatment for advanced cancers resistant to conventional agents. Most notable are the remarkable responses seen in patients receiving autologous CD19-redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of B lymphoid malignancies; however, the generation of autologous products for each patient is logistically cumbersome and has restricted widespread clinical use. A banked allogeneic product has the potential to overcome these limitations, yet allogeneic T-cells (even if human leukocyte antigen-matched) carry a major risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Natural killer (NK) cells are bone marrow-derived innate lymphocytes that can eliminate tumors directly, with their activity governed by the integration of signals from activating and inhibitory receptors and from cytokines including IL-15, IL-12, and IL-18. NK cells do not cause GVHD or other alloimmune or autoimmune toxicities and thus, can provide a potential source of allogeneic "off-the-shelf" cellular therapy, mediating major anti-tumor effects without inducing potentially lethal alloreactivity such as GVHD. Given the multiple unique advantages of NK cells, researchers are now exploring the use of CAR-engineered NK cells for the treatment of various hematological and non-hematological malignancies. Herein, we review preclinical data on the development of CAR-NK cells, advantages, disadvantages, and current obstacles to their clinical use.

KEYWORDS:

cancer; chimeric antigen receptor; chimeric antigen receptor T; chimeric antigen receptor natural killer; hematopoietic stem cell transplant; natural killer cells

PMID:
29497427
PMCID:
PMC5818392
DOI:
10.3389/fimmu.2018.00283
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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