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Nano Lett. 2017 Sep 13;17(9):5836-5842. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03081. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Syringe-Injectable Electronics with a Plug-and-Play Input/Output Interface.

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John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and ‡Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.


Syringe-injectable mesh electronics represent a new paradigm for brain science and neural prosthetics by virtue of the stable seamless integration of the electronics with neural tissues, a consequence of the macroporous mesh electronics structure with all size features similar to or less than individual neurons and tissue-like flexibility. These same properties, however, make input/output (I/O) connection to measurement electronics challenging, and work to-date has required methods that could be difficult to implement by the life sciences community. Here we present a new syringe-injectable mesh electronics design with plug-and-play I/O interfacing that is rapid, scalable, and user-friendly to nonexperts. The basic design tapers the ultraflexible mesh electronics to a narrow stem that routes all of the device/electrode interconnects to I/O pads that are inserted into a standard zero insertion force (ZIF) connector. Studies show that the entire plug-and-play mesh electronics can be delivered through capillary needles with precise targeting using microliter-scale injection volumes similar to the standard mesh electronics design. Electrical characterization of mesh electronics containing platinum (Pt) electrodes and silicon (Si) nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) demonstrates the ability to interface arbitrary devices with a contact resistance of only 3 Ω. Finally, in vivo injection into mice required only minutes for I/O connection and yielded expected local field potential (LFP) recordings from a compact head-stage compatible with chronic studies. Our results substantially lower barriers for use by new investigators and open the door for increasingly sophisticated and multifunctional mesh electronics designs for both basic and translational studies.


Mesh electronics; flat flexible cable (FFC) connector; nanoelectronics interface; nanowire field-effect transistor; neural interface; zero insertion force (ZIF) connection

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