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Nanoscale Res Lett. 2017 Dec;12(1):454. doi: 10.1186/s11671-017-2222-6. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Nanoparticles as Efflux Pump and Biofilm Inhibitor to Rejuvenate Bactericidal Effect of Conventional Antibiotics.

Author information

1
Medical Microbiology and Molecular Biology Lab., Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.
2
Department of Biotechnology, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, 202145, India.
3
Department of Biotechnology, G. B. Pant Engineering College, Pauri, 246194, India.
4
Medical Microbiology and Molecular Biology Lab., Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India. asad.k@rediffmail.com.

Abstract

The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells. Hindrance in the functioning of efflux pumps may rejuvenate the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics. Efflux pumps also play an important role in the exclusion or inclusion of quorum-sensing biomolecules responsible for biofilm formation in bacterial cells. This transit movement of quorum-sensing biomolecules inside or outside the bacterial cells may get interrupted by impeding the functioning of efflux pumps. Metallic nanoparticles represent a potential candidate to block efflux pumps of bacterial cells. The application of nanoparticles as efflux pump inhibitors will not only help to revive the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics but will also assist to reduce biofilm-forming capacity of microbes. This review focuses on a novel and fascinating application of metallic nanoparticles in synergy with conventional antibiotics for efflux pump inhibition.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-biofilm; Conventional antibiotics; Efflux pumps; Metallic nanoparticles; Quorum-sensing biomolecules; Synergy

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