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Cell Metab. 2017 Jul 5;26(1):110-130. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.008. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Understanding the Holobiont: How Microbial Metabolites Affect Human Health and Shape the Immune System.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: sg2715@cumc.columbia.edu.

Abstract

The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior. This includes metabolites that are produced by bacteria from dietary components, metabolites that are produced by the host and biochemically modified by gut bacteria, and metabolites that are synthesized de novo by gut microbes. In this review, we highlight the role of the intestinal microbiome in human metabolic and inflammatory diseases and focus in particular on the molecular mechanisms that govern the gut-immune axis.

KEYWORDS:

atherosclerosis; commensals; indole; inflammatory bowel disease; metabolic syndrome; microbiome; obesity; polyamine; polysaccharide A; short-chain fatty acids

PMID:
28625867
PMCID:
PMC5535818
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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