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J Gen Virol. 2017 Jun;98(6):1209-1223. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000787. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signalling-mediated antiviral response against avian influenza virus infection correlates with macrophage recruitment and nitric oxide production.

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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Health Research Innovation Centre 2C53, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada, AB T2N 4N1.
Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, ON N1G 2W1.


Cytosine-guanosinedeoxynucleotide (CpG) DNA can be used for the stimulation of the toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signalling pathway in avian species which ultimately leads to up-regulation of gene transcription for pro-inflammatory molecules including nitric oxide and recruitment of innate immune cells. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of NO, produced in response to in ovo delivery of CpG DNA, against avian influenza virus (AIV) infection. We found that when CpG DNA is delivered at embryo day (ED)18 in ovo and subsequently challenged with H4N6 AIV at ED19 pre-hatch and day 1 post-hatching, CpG DNA reduces H4N6 AIV replication associated with enhanced NO production and macrophage recruitment in lungs. In vitro, we showed that NO originating from macrophages is capable of eliciting an antiviral response against H4N6 AIV infection. This study provides insights into the mechanisms of CpG DNA-mediated antiviral response, particularly against AIV infection in avian species.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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