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Neuroscience. 2017 Jun 3;352:144-154. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.03.057. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Pretreatment with minocycline restores neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and subgranular zone of the hippocampus after ketamine exposure in neonatal rats.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 157(#)West 5 road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China; Institute of Neurobiology, National Key Academic Subject of Physiology of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 76(#)Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.
2
Institute of Neurobiology, National Key Academic Subject of Physiology of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 76(#)Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.
3
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA.
4
Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 157(#)West 5 road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China. Electronic address: zhpbo@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Ketamine is commonly used for anesthesia in pediatric patients. Recent studies indicated that ketamine exposure in the developing brain can induce neuroapoptosis and disturb normal neurogenesis, which will result in long-lasting cognitive impairment. Minocycline exerts neuroprotection against a wide range of toxic insults in neurodegenerative disease models. In the present study, we investigated whether the disturbed neurogenesis and behavioral deficits after ketamine neonatal exposure could be alleviated by minocycline. Postnatal day (PND)7 Sprague-Dawley rat pups randomly received either normal saline, ketamine, or minocycline 30min prior to ketamine administration, respectively. The rats were decapitated at PND14 for the detection of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus by immunostaining. The protein expression of p-Akt, p-GSK-3β in the SVZ and SGZ at 12h after anesthesia, PND10 and PND14 were assessed by western blotting analysis. At PND 42-47, spatial learning and memory abilities were measured by the Morris water maze in all groups. Our data showed that ketamine exposure in neonatal rats resulted in neurogenetic damage and persistent cognitive deficits, and that pretreatment with minocycline eliminated the brain development damage and improved the behavioral function in adult rats. Moreover, the protection of minocycline is associated with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Akt; GSK-3β; brain development; ketamine; minocycline; neuroprotection

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