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J Plant Physiol. 2017 Jun;213:42-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2017.02.012. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Initiation of leaf somatic embryogenesis involves high pectin esterification, auxin accumulation and DNA demethylation in Quercus alba.

Author information

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia, CSIC, Avda. de Vigo s/n, Apartado 122, 15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
2
Pollen Biotechnology of Crop Plants group, Biological Research Center, CIB-CSIC Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia, CSIC, Avda. de Vigo s/n, Apartado 122, 15780 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
3
Pollen Biotechnology of Crop Plants group, Biological Research Center, CIB-CSIC Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
4
Pollen Biotechnology of Crop Plants group, Biological Research Center, CIB-CSIC Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: testillano@cib.csic.es.

Abstract

Somatic embryogenesis is considered a convenient tool for investigating the regulating mechanisms of embryo formation; it is also a feasible system for in vitro regeneration procedures, with many advantages in woody species. Nevertheless, trees have shown recalcitrance to somatic embryogenesis, and its efficiency remains very low in many cases. Consequently, despite the clear potential of somatic embryogenesis in tree breeding programs, its application is limited since factors responsible for embryogenesis initiation have not yet been completely elucidated. In the present work, we investigated key cellular factors involved in the change of developmental program during leaf somatic embryogenesis initiation of white oak (Quercus alba), aiming to identify early markers of the process. The results revealed that pectin esterification, auxin accumulation and DNA demethylation were induced during embryogenesis initiation and differentially found in embryogenic cells, while they were not present in leaf cells before induction or in non-embryogenic cells after embryogenesis initiation. These three factors constitute early markers of leaf embryogenesis and represent processes that could be interconnected and involved in the regulation of cell reprogramming and embryogenesis initiation. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying plant cell reprogramming, totipotency and embryogenic competence acquisition, especially in tree species for which information is scarce, thus opening up the possibility of efficient manipulation of somatic embryogenesis induction.

KEYWORDS:

Auxin; Cell reprogramming; Cell totipotency; Cell wall; DNA methylation; Leaf in vitro culture; Pectin esterification; Somatic embryogenesis; White oak

PMID:
28315794
DOI:
10.1016/j.jplph.2017.02.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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