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J Physiol Sci. 2017 Jan;67(1):71-81. doi: 10.1007/s12576-016-0487-7. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Derangement of calcium metabolism in diabetes mellitus: negative outcome from the synergy between impaired bone turnover and intestinal calcium absorption.

Author information

1
Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
2
Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand.
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
4
Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. naratt@narattsys.com.
5
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. naratt@narattsys.com.

Abstract

Both types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) are associated with profound deterioration of calcium and bone metabolism, partly from impaired intestinal calcium absorption, leading to a reduction in calcium uptake into the body. T1DM is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, whereas the skeletal changes in T2DM are variable, ranging from normal to increased and to decreased BMD. However, both types of DM eventually compromise bone quality through production of advanced glycation end products and misalignment of collagen fibrils (so-called matrix failure), thereby culminating in a reduction of bone strength. The underlying cellular mechanisms (cellular failure) are related to suppression of osteoblast-induced bone formation and bone calcium accretion, as well as to enhancement of osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Several other T2DM-related pathophysiological changes, e.g., osteoblast insulin resistance, impaired productions of osteogenic growth factors (particularly insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone morphogenetic proteins), overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, also aggravate diabetic osteopathy. In the kidney, DM and the resultant hyperglycemia lead to calciuresis and hypercalciuria in both humans and rodents. Furthermore, DM causes deranged functions of endocrine factors related to mineral metabolism, e.g., parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and fibroblast growth factor-23. Despite the wealth of information regarding impaired bone remodeling in DM, the long-lasting effects of DM on calcium metabolism in young growing individuals, pregnant women, and neonates born to women with gestational DM have received scant attention, and their underlying mechanisms are almost unknown and worth exploring.

KEYWORDS:

Bone loss; Calcium wasting; Growth plate; Osteoporosis; T1DM; T2DM

PMID:
27671701
DOI:
10.1007/s12576-016-0487-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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