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Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Jul 8;44(W1):W83-9. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw199. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

g:Profiler-a web server for functional interpretation of gene lists (2016 update).

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Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, 661 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada.
Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Liivi 2, 50409 Tartu, Estonia.
Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Liivi 2, 50409 Tartu, Estonia


Functional enrichment analysis is a key step in interpreting gene lists discovered in diverse high-throughput experiments. g:Profiler studies flat and ranked gene lists and finds statistically significant Gene Ontology terms, pathways and other gene function related terms. Translation of hundreds of gene identifiers is another core feature of g:Profiler. Since its first publication in 2007, our web server has become a popular tool of choice among basic and translational researchers. Timeliness is a major advantage of g:Profiler as genome and pathway information is synchronized with the Ensembl database in quarterly updates. g:Profiler supports 213 species including mammals and other vertebrates, plants, insects and fungi. The 2016 update of g:Profiler introduces several novel features. We have added further functional datasets to interpret gene lists, including transcription factor binding site predictions, Mendelian disease annotations, information about protein expression and complexes and gene mappings of human genetic polymorphisms. Besides the interactive web interface, g:Profiler can be accessed in computational pipelines using our R package, Python interface and BioJS component. g:Profiler is freely available at

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