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Annu Rev Neurosci. 2016 Jul 8;39:19-40. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-013824. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Ten Years of Grid Cells.

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Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience and Centre for Neural Computation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; email: , , ,


The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) creates a neural representation of space through a set of functionally dedicated cell types: grid cells, border cells, head direction cells, and speed cells. Grid cells, the most abundant functional cell type in the MEC, have hexagonally arranged firing fields that tile the surface of the environment. These cells were discovered only in 2005, but after 10 years of investigation, we are beginning to understand how they are organized in the MEC network, how their periodic firing fields might be generated, how they are shaped by properties of the environment, and how they interact with the rest of the MEC network. The aim of this review is to summarize what we know about grid cells and point out where our knowledge is still incomplete.


association cortex; attractor networks; entorhinal cortex; hippocampus; memory; spatial navigation

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