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J Virol. 2016 Apr 14;90(9):4780-4795. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02586-15. Print 2016 May.

MicroRNA-19b-3p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Mediated Inflammation via Targeting RNF11.

Ashraf U1,2,3,4, Zhu B1,2,3,4, Ye J1,2,3,4, Wan S1,2,3,4, Nie Y1,2,3,4, Chen Z1,2,3,4, Cui M1,2,3,4, Wang C1,2,3,4, Duan X1,2,3,4, Zhang H1,2,3,4, Chen H1,2,3,4, Cao S5,2,3,4.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
2
Laboratory of Animal Virology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
3
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
4
Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products, Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China sbcao@mail.hzau.edu.cn.

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is unknown how astrocytic miRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, we found the involvement of miR-19b-3p in regulating the JEV-induced inflammatory responsein vitroandin vivo The data demonstrated that miR-19b-3p is upregulated in cultured cells and mouse brain tissues during JEV infection. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p led to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, after JEV infection, whereas knockdown of miR-19b-3p had completely opposite effects. Mechanistically, miR-19b-3p modulated the JEV-induced inflammatory response via targeting ring finger protein 11, a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. We also found that inhibition of ring finger protein 11 by miR-19b-3p resulted in accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the nucleus, which in turn led to higher production of inflammatory cytokines.In vivosilencing of miR-19b-3p by a specific antagomir reinvigorates the expression level of RNF11, which in turn reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, abrogates gliosis and neuronal cell death, and eventually improves the survival rate in the mouse model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-19b-3p positively regulates the JEV-induced inflammatory response. Thus, miR-19b-3p targeting may constitute a thought-provoking approach to rein in JEV-induced inflammation.

IMPORTANCE:

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The pathological features of JEV-induced encephalitis are inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases resulting from glia activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. Accumulating data indicate that miRNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including the host inflammatory response under pathological conditions. Recently, a few studies demonstrated the role of miRNAs in a JEV-induced inflammatory response in microglia; however, their role in an astrocyte-derived inflammatory response is largely unknown. The present study reveals that miR-19b-3p targets ring finger protein 11 in glia and promotes inflammatory cytokine production by enhancing nuclear factor kappa B activity in these cells. Moreover, administration of an miR-19b-3p-specific antagomir in JEV-infected mice reduces neuroinflammation and lethality. These findings suggest a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the JEV-induced inflammatory response and provide a possible therapeutic entry point for treating viral encephalitis.

PMID:
26937036
PMCID:
PMC4836334
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.02586-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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