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PLoS One. 2016 Feb 3;11(2):e0147549. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147549. eCollection 2016.

Host-Parasite Interactions and Purifying Selection in a Microsporidian Parasite of Honey Bees.

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State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming, 650223, China.
USDA-ARS Bee Research Laboratory, BARC-East Building 306, Beltsville, Maryland, 20705, United States of America.
Center for Ecological and Environmental Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072, China.
Chongqing Academy of Animal Science, Chongqing, 402460, China.


To clarify the mechanisms of Nosema ceranae parasitism, we deep-sequenced both honey bee host and parasite mRNAs throughout a complete 6-day infection cycle. By time-series analysis, 1122 parasite genes were significantly differently expressed during the reproduction cycle, clustering into 4 expression patterns. We found reactive mitochondrial oxygen species modulator 1 of the host to be significantly down regulated during the entire infection period. Our data support the hypothesis that apoptosis of honey bee cells was suppressed during infection. We further analyzed genome-wide genetic diversity of this parasite by comparing samples collected from the same site in 2007 and 2013. The number of SNP positions per gene and the proportion of non-synonymous substitutions per gene were significantly reduced over this time period, suggesting purifying selection on the parasite genome and supporting the hypothesis that a subset of N. ceranae strains might be dominating infection.

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