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Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 3;6:20263. doi: 10.1038/srep20263.

Dynamic changes in global microRNAome and transcriptome reveal complex miRNA-mRNA regulated host response to Japanese Encephalitis Virus in microglial cells.

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Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Center, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, India.
Computational Biology Group, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, India.
National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana, India.
Innovative Life Discoveries Pvt. Ltd., Manesar, Haryana, India.


Microglia cells in the brain play essential role during Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) infection and may lead to change in microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA profile. These changes may together control disease outcome. Using Affymetrix microarray platform, we profiled cellular miRNA and mRNA expression at multiple time points during viral infection in human microglial (CHME3) cells. In silico analysis of microarray data revealed a phased pattern of miRNAs expression, associated with JEV replication and provided unique signatures of infection. Target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis identified anti correlation between differentially expressed miRNA and the gene expression at multiple time point which ultimately affected diverse signaling pathways including Notch signaling pathways in microglia. Activation of Notch pathway during JEV infection was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The expression of a subset of miRNAs that target multiple genes in Notch signaling pathways were suppressed and their overexpression could affect JEV induced immune response. Further analysis provided evidence for the possible presence of cellular competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) associated with innate immune response. Collectively, our data provide a uniquely comprehensive view of the changes in the host miRNAs induced by JEV during cellular infection and identify Notch pathway in modulating microglia mediated inflammation.

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