Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2016 Oct;171(7):971-81. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32421. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Smoking during pregnancy and ADHD risk: A genetically informed, multiple-rater approach.

Author information

1
Division of Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island. valerie_knopik@brown.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. valerie_knopik@brown.edu.
3
Division of Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.
4
Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
5
Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
6
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
7
Department of Psychology and Child Development, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California.
8
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
9
Memorial Hospital, Pawtucket, RI USA; Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
10
Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Abstract

Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is a significant public health concern with adverse consequences to the health and well-being of the developing child, including behavioral outcomes such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There is substantial interest in understanding the nature of this reported association, particularly in light of more recent genetically informed studies that suggest that the SDP-ADHD link is less clear than once thought. In a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure, we use a sibling-comparison approach that controls for shared genetic and familial influences to assess the effects of SDP on ADHD symptom dimensions. ADHD was measured by both parent and teacher report on the Conners report forms and the Child Behavior Checklist/Teacher Report Form (CBCL/TRF). Results for the CBCL/TRF Total ADHD score are consistent with prior genetically informed approaches and suggest that previously reported associations between SDP and ADHD are largely due to familial confounding rather than causal teratogenic effects. However, results from the Conners parent report suggest a potentially causal effect of SDP on hyperactive/impulsive and, to a lesser extent, total ADHD symptoms; SDP results in increased parent-reported hyperactive/impulsive and total ADHD symptoms even after accounting for genetic and familial confounding factors. This suggests that the Conners assessment (parent-report) may provide a sensitive measure for use in studies examining child specific SDP effects on continuous and dimensional aspects of ADHD.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; CBCL; Conners; genetics; multiple reporters; sibling comparison design; smoking during pregnancy

PMID:
26799787
PMCID:
PMC4958030
DOI:
10.1002/ajmg.b.32421
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center