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J Magn Reson. 2015 Nov;260:67-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2015.08.024. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Interpretation of magnetization transfer from inhomogeneously broadened lines (ihMT) in tissues as a dipolar order effect within motion restricted molecules.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Division of MR Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address: gvarma@bidmc.harvard.edu.
2
Aix Marseille Université, CRMBM-CEMEREM UMR 7339, CNRS - AMU, Marseille, France.
3
Department of Radiology, Division of MR Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Abstract

Comparison of off-resonance saturation with single and dual frequency irradiation indicates a contribution of inhomogeneously broadened lines to magnetization transfer in tissues. This inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) phenomenon can be exploited to produce images that highlight tissues containing myelin, in vivo. Here, a model for ihMT is described that includes dipolar order effects from magnetization associated with motion-restricted macromolecules. In this model, equal irradiation at positive and negative frequency offsets eliminates dipolar order and achieves greater saturation than irradiation at a single offset frequency using the same power. Fitting of mouse and human volunteer brain data at different irradiation powers and offset frequencies was performed to assess the relevance of the model and approximate tissue parameters. A key parameter in determining ihMT signal was found to be the relaxation time T1D associated with the dipolar order reservoir and the fraction f of the semi-solid, bound magnetization that possessed a nonzero T1D. Indeed, better fits of myelinated tissue were achieved when assuming f≠1. From such fits, estimated T1Ds of mice in the white matter, (34±14) ms, were much longer than in muscle, T1D=(1±1) ms and the average f from white matter volunteer data was 2.2 times greater than that in grey matter. The combination of f and longer T1Ds was primarily responsible for the much higher ihMT in myelinated tissues, and provided explanation for the species variation. This dipolar order ihMT model should help guide future research, pulse sequence optimization, and clinical applications.

KEYWORDS:

Dipolar relaxation; Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer; MT; Myelin; Provotorov theory; Quantitative magnetization transfer; Saturation; Spin temperature; SuperLorentzian lineshape; ihMT

PMID:
26408956
DOI:
10.1016/j.jmr.2015.08.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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