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Development. 2015 Sep 1;142(17):2876-87. doi: 10.1242/dev.120030.

Trithorax and Polycomb group-dependent regulation: a tale of opposing activities.

Author information

1
Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich, Mattenstrasse 26, Basel 4058, Switzerland.
2
Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich, Mattenstrasse 26, Basel 4058, Switzerland Faculty of Science, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, Basel 4056, Switzerland renato.paro@bsse.ethz.ch.

Abstract

Intricate layers of regulation determine the unique gene expression profiles of a given cell and, therefore, underlie the immense phenotypic diversity observed among cell types. Understanding the mechanisms that govern which genes are expressed and which genes are silenced is a fundamental focus in biology. The Polycomb and Trithorax group chromatin proteins play important roles promoting the stable and heritable repression and activation of gene expression, respectively. These proteins, which are conserved across metazoans, modulate post-translational modifications on histone tails and regulate nucleosomal structures. Here, we review recent advances that have shed light on the mechanisms by which these two classes of proteins act to maintain epigenetic memory and allow dynamic switches in gene expression during development.

KEYWORDS:

Chromatin; Epigenetics; Polycomb group; Transcriptional memory; Trithorax group

PMID:
26329598
DOI:
10.1242/dev.120030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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