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Front Syst Neurosci. 2015 Aug 10;9:107. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00107. eCollection 2015.

Bidirectional interactions between neuronal and hemodynamic responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): challenges for brain-state dependent tDCS.

Author information

1
INRIA (Sophia Antipolis) - CNRS: UMR5506 - Université Montpellier Montpellier, France ; Laboratoire d'Informatique de Robotique et de Microélectronique de Montpellier (LIRMM), CNRS: UMR5506 - Université Montpellier Montpellier, France.

Abstract

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate cortical neural activity. During neural activity, the electric currents from excitable membranes of brain tissue superimpose in the extracellular medium and generate a potential at scalp, which is referred as the electroencephalogram (EEG). Respective neural activity (energy demand) has been shown to be closely related, spatially and temporally, to cerebral blood flow (CBF) that supplies glucose (energy supply) via neurovascular coupling. The hemodynamic response can be captured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which enables continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and blood volume. This neurovascular coupling phenomenon led to the concept of neurovascular unit (NVU) that consists of the endothelium, glia, neurons, pericytes, and the basal lamina. Here, recent works suggest NVU as an integrated system working in concert using feedback mechanisms to enable proper brain homeostasis and function where the challenge remains in capturing these mostly nonlinear spatiotemporal interactions within NVU for brain-state dependent tDCS. In principal accordance, we propose EEG-NIRS-based whole-head monitoring of tDCS-induced neuronal and hemodynamic alterations during tDCS.

KEYWORDS:

electroencephalogram; hemo-neural hypothesis; near-infrared spectroscopy; neurovascular coupling; transcranial direct current stimulation

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