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Viral Immunol. 2015 Nov;28(9):478-88. doi: 10.1089/vim.2015.0027. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Immune Responses to Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses in Chickens.

Author information

1
1 University of Liverpool, Institute of Infection and Global Health , School of Veterinary Science, Neston, United Kingdom .
2
2 College Central Laboratory, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (LUVAS) , Hisar, India .

Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious chicken viral disease, causing severe economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. In the last few decades, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been extensively studied, but knowledge of immune responses to virulent or vaccine strains of IBVs remains limited. This review focuses on fundamental aspects of immune responses against IBV, including the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in identification of conserved viral structures and the role of different components of innate immunity (e.g., heterophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, acute phase protein, and cytokines). Studies on adaptive immune activation and the role of humoral and cellular immunity in IBV clearance are also reviewed. Multiple interlinking immune responses are essential for protection against virulent IBVs, including passive, innate, adaptive, and effector T cells active at mucosal surfaces. Although the development of approaches for chicken transcriptome and proteome analyses have greatly helped the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms for immunity, there are still major knowledge gaps, such as the role of mucosal and cellular responses to IBVs. In view of recent reports of emergent IBV variants in many countries, there is renewed interest in a more complete understanding of poultry immune responses to both virulent and vaccine strains of IBVs. This will be critical for developing new vaccine or vaccination strategies and other intervention programs.

PMID:
26301315
DOI:
10.1089/vim.2015.0027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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