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Prog Retin Eye Res. 2015 Nov;49:46-66. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Advances in understanding the molecular basis of the first steps in color vision.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Cleveland Center for Membrane and Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address: lxh278@case.edu.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Cleveland Center for Membrane and Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address: kxp65@case.edu.

Abstract

Serving as one of our primary environmental inputs, vision is the most sophisticated sensory system in humans. Here, we present recent findings derived from energetics, genetics and physiology that provide a more advanced understanding of color perception in mammals. Energetics of cis-trans isomerization of 11-cis-retinal accounts for color perception in the narrow region of the electromagnetic spectrum and how human eyes can absorb light in the near infrared (IR) range. Structural homology models of visual pigments reveal complex interactions of the protein moieties with the light sensitive chromophore 11-cis-retinal and that certain color blinding mutations impair secondary structural elements of these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Finally, we identify unsolved critical aspects of color tuning that require future investigation.

KEYWORDS:

Color blindness; Color vision; Cone photoreceptor(s); Energetics; Retina; Spectral tuning; Vision; Visual pigments

PMID:
26187035
PMCID:
PMC4651776
DOI:
10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.07.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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