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Res Microbiol. 2015 May;166(4):303-17. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I and Group II.

Author information

1
Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK.

Abstract

Recent developments in whole genome sequencing have made a substantial contribution to understanding the genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I (proteolytic C. botulinum) and C. botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic C. botulinum). Two different approaches are used to study genomics in these bacteria; comparative whole genome microarrays and direct comparison of complete genome DNA sequences. The properties of the different types of neurotoxin formed, and different neurotoxin gene clusters found in C. botulinum Groups I and II are explored. Specific examples of botulinum neurotoxin genes are chosen for an in-depth discussion of neurotoxin gene evolution. The most recent cases of foodborne botulism are summarised.

KEYWORDS:

Botulinum neurotoxin; Botulism; Clostridium botulinum; Genomics; Neurotoxin gene cluster

PMID:
25445012
PMCID:
PMC4430135
DOI:
10.1016/j.resmic.2014.10.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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