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Conscious Cogn. 2014 Aug;28:64-80. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.005. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Metacognitive model of mindfulness.

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Institute of Psychology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:
Psychology Department, University of Warsaw, Center for Psychotherapy, Warsaw Medical University, ul. Dolna 42, 00-774 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:


Mindfulness training has proven to be an efficacious therapeutic tool for a variety of clinical and nonclinical health problems and a booster of well-being. In this paper we propose a multi-level metacognitive model of mindfulness. We postulate and discuss following hypothesis: (1) mindfulness is related to the highest level of metacognition; (2) mindfulness depends on dynamic cooperation of three main components of the metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive experiences and metacognitive skills); (3) a mindful meta-level is always conscious while the other meta-cognitive processes can occur implicitly; (4) intentionally practiced mindfulness decreases dissociations between awareness and meta-awareness; (5) components of mindful meta-level develop and change during continuous practice. The current model is discussed in the light of empirical data and other theoretical approaches to mindfulness concept. We believe that presented model provides some helpful avenues for future research and theoretical investigations into mindfulness and the mechanisms of its actions.


Consciousness; Meta-awareness; Metacognition; Mindfulness

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