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J Nanobiotechnology. 2014 May 3;12:19. doi: 10.1186/1477-3155-12-19.

PapMV nanoparticles improve mucosal immune responses to the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine.

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Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, 'Centre de recherche en Infectiologie', Laval University, 2705 boul, Laurier, Quebec City, PQ G1V 4G2, Canada.



Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge.


In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV.


We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination.

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