Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Mol Biol. 2014 Mar 20;426(6):1246-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.11.024. Epub 2013 Dec 3.

Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.
2
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address: kli1@uthsc.edu.

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses.

KEYWORDS:

cytokine; interferon; interferon regulatory factor; nuclear factor-kappa B; virus

PMID:
24316048
PMCID:
PMC3943763
DOI:
10.1016/j.jmb.2013.11.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center