Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Plant Physiol. 2013 Oct;163(2):682-95. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.223297. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Enzymatic formation of β-citraurin from β-cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase4 in the flavedo of citrus fruit.

Author information

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Suruga, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan.

Abstract

In this study, the pathway of β-citraurin biosynthesis, carotenoid contents and the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in two varieties of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), Yamashitabeni-wase, which accumulates β-citraurin predominantly, and Miyagawa-wase, which does not accumulate β-citraurin. The results suggested that CitCCD4 (for Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4) was a key gene contributing to the biosynthesis of β-citraurin. In the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 increased rapidly from September, which was consistent with the accumulation of β-citraurin. In the flavedo of Miyagawa-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 remained at an extremely low level during the ripening process, which was consistent with the absence of β-citraurin. Functional analysis showed that the CitCCD4 enzyme exhibited substrate specificity. It cleaved β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin at the 7,8 or 7',8' position. But other carotenoids tested in this study (lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin) were not cleaved by the CitCCD4 enzyme. The cleavage of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin by CitCCD4 led to the formation of β-citraurin. Additionally, with ethylene and red light-emitting diode light treatments, the gene expression of CitCCD4 was up-regulated in the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase. These increases in the expression of CitCCD4 were consistent with the accumulation of β-citraurin in the two treatments. These results might provide new strategies to improve the carotenoid contents and compositions of citrus fruits.

PMID:
23966550
PMCID:
PMC3793050
DOI:
10.1104/pp.113.223297
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Secondary source ID

Publication type

MeSH terms

Substances

Secondary source ID

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center