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Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 15;74(4):242-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.019. Epub 2013 Apr 1.

How might circadian rhythms control mood? Let me count the ways...

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Translational Neuroscience Program, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. mcclungca@upmc.edu

Abstract

Mood disorders are serious diseases that affect a large portion of the population. There have been many hypotheses put forth over the years to explain the development of major depression, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders. These hypotheses include disruptions in monoamine transmission, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, immune function, neurogenesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuropeptide signaling (to name a few). Nearly all people suffering from mood disorders have significant disruptions in circadian rhythms and the sleep/wake cycle. In fact, altered sleep patterns are one of the major diagnostic criteria for these disorders. Moreover, environmental disruptions to circadian rhythms, including shift work, travel across time zones, and irregular social schedules, tend to precipitate or exacerbate mood-related episodes. Recent studies have found that molecular clocks are found throughout the brain and body where they participate in the regulation of most physiological processes, including those thought to be involved in mood regulation. This review will summarize recent data that implicate the circadian system as a vital regulator of a variety of systems that are thought to play a role in the development of mood disorders.

KEYWORDS:

Bipolar disorder; circadian rhythms; depression; immune system; metabolism; neurogenesis

Comment in

PMID:
23558300
PMCID:
PMC3725187
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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