Send to

Choose Destination
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Nov;33(10):1975-82. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3113. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

Whither the hippocampus? FDG-PET hippocampal hypometabolism in Alzheimer disease revisited.

Author information

Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.



The hippocampus is a widely recognized area of early change in AD, yet voxelwise analyses of FDG-PET activity differences between AD and CN controls have consistently failed to identify hippocampal hypometabolism. In this article, we propose a high-dimensional PET-specific analysis framework to determine whether important hippocampal metabolic FDG-PET activity differences between patients with AD and CN subjects are embedded in the Jacobian information generated during spatial normalization.


Resting FDG-PET data were obtained from 102 CN and 92 participants with AD from the ADNI data base. A PET-study-specific template was constructed using symmetric diffeomorphic registration. Spatially normalized raw FDG maps, Jacobian determinant maps, and modulated maps were generated for all subjects. Statistical parametric mapping and tensor-based morphometry were performed, comparing patients with AD with CN subjects.


Whole-brain spatially normalized raw FDG maps demonstrated robust hypometabolism in cingulate gyrus and bilateral parietal areas. No hippocampal differences were present, except on ROI-based analyses with a hippocampal mask. Whole-brain modulated maps demonstrated robust bilateral hippocampal hypometabolism, and some hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate. Tensor-based morphometry demonstrated robust hippocampal differences only.


These results demonstrate that hippocampal metabolic differences are embedded in the Jacobian information from the spatial normalization procedure. We introduce a voxelwise PET-specific analysis framework based on the use of a PET-population-specific template, high-dimensional symmetric diffeomorphic normalization, and the use of Jacobian information, which can provide substantially increased statistical power and an order of magnitude decrease in imaging costs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center