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Virus Res. 2011 Dec;162(1-2):138-47. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2011.09.017. Epub 2011 Sep 17.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

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Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.


Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

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