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Eur Respir Rev. 2011 Sep 1;20(121):156-74. doi: 10.1183/09059180.00001011.

Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review.

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Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Harper University Hospital, 3990 John R, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.


Aspergillus is a mould which may lead to a variety of infectious, allergic diseases depending on the host's immune status or pulmonary structure. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis occurs primarily in patients with severe immunodeficiency. The significance of this infection has dramatically increased with growing numbers of patients with impaired immune state associated with the management of malignancy, organ transplantation, autoimmune and inflammatory conditions; critically ill patients and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appear to be at an increased risk. The introduction of new noninvasive tests, combined with more effective and better-tolerated antifungal agents, has resulted in lower mortality rates associated with this infection. Chronic necrotising aspergillosis is a locally invasive disease described in patients with chronic lung disease or mild immunodeficiency. Aspergilloma is usually found in patients with previously formed cavities in the lung, whereas allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus antigens, is generally seen in patients with atopy, asthma or cystic fibrosis. This review provides an update on the evolving epidemiology and risk factors of the major manifestations of Aspergillus lung disease and the clinical manifestations that should prompt the clinician to consider these conditions. Current approaches for the diagnosis and management of these syndromes are discussed.

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