Send to

Choose Destination
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011 Mar;35(4):1052-66. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.09.015. Epub 2010 Oct 16.

Parental precaution: neurobiological means and adaptive ends.

Author information

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, 1282A Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States.


Humans invest precious reproductive resources in just a few offspring, who remain vulnerable for an extended period of their lifetimes relative to other primates. Therefore, it is likely that humans evolved a rich precautionary psychology that assists in the formidable task of protecting offspring. In this review, we integrate precautionary behaviors during pregnancy and postpartum with the adaptive functions they may serve and what is known of their biological mediators, particularly brain systems motivating security and attachment. We highlight the role of reproductive hormones in (i) priming parental affiliation with young to incentivize offspring protection, (ii) focusing parental attention on cues of potential threat, and (iii) facilitating maternal defense against potentially dangerous conspecifics and predators. Throughout, we center discussion on adaptive responses to threats of disease, accident and assault as common causes of child mortality in the ancestral past.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center