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J Gen Virol. 2010 May;91(Pt 5):1155-63. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.017905-0. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

Human lung innate immune cytokine response to adenovirus type 7.

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Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.


Adenovirus (Ad) type 7 can cause severe infection, including pneumonia, in military recruits and children. The initial inflammation is a neutrophilic interstitial infiltration with neutrophilic alveolitis. Subsequently, monocytes become evident and, finally, there is a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate. We have established that Ad7 infection of epithelial cells stimulates release of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin (IL)-8, and have extended these studies to a human lung tissue model. Here, we studied cytokine responses to Ad7 in human alveolar macrophages (HAM) and our human lung tissue model. Both ELISA and RNase-protection assay (RPA) data demonstrated that, upon Ad7 infection, IP-10 and MIP-1alpha/beta are released from HAM. IP-10 and MIP-1alpha/beta protein levels were induced 2- and 3-fold, respectively, in HAM 24 h after Ad7 infection. We then investigated induction of specific cytokines in human lung tissue by RPA and ELISA. The results showed that IL-8 and IL-6 were induced 8 h after infection and, by 24 h, levels of IL-8, IL-6, MIP-1alpha/beta and MCP-1 were all increased. IP-10, a monocyte and lymphocyte chemokine, was also induced 30-fold, but only 24 h after infection. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed that IL-8 was only released from the epithelial cells of lung slices and not from macrophages. IP-10 was secreted from both macrophages and epithelial cells. Moreover, full induction of IP-10 is likely to require participation and cooperation of both epithelial cells and macrophages in intact lung. Understanding the cytokine and chemokine induction during Ad7 infection may lead to novel ways to modulate the response to this pathogen.

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