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Physiol Behav. 2010 Mar 3;99(3):355-61. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.11.013. Epub 2009 Nov 30.

Testosterone, facial symmetry and cooperation in the prisoners' dilemma.

Author information

1
Edinburgh School of Economics. 31 Buccleuch Place, EH8 9JT, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. ssanchez@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Recent research has analyzed how individual characteristics, like the exposure to different hormones and symmetry, affect decision-making and strategic behaviour. The present article investigates the effect of symmetry, of exposure to testosterone (T) in utero and during puberty and of current T on cooperation in a Prisoners' Dilemma Game (PDG). T is a hormone with well known effect on males' behaviour, and that promotes activities that seek to increase reproductive success. Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA) reflects the ability of the organism to maintain a stable development and it is usually employed as a variable reflecting genetic quality (low FA values are thought to signal higher genetic quality). Our results show that subjects with intermediate levels of second to fourth digit ratio (a proxy of exposure to T in utero) and with high FA cooperate more often in the PDG. We also observe that the latter effect is due to the fact that FA has an impact on subjects' expectations about the behaviour of their counterpart in the game. These results reinforce the described link between markers related to genetic quality and cooperative behaviour. This possible linkage of individual condition and pro-social behaviour in humans clearly merits further attention.

PMID:
19954750
DOI:
10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.11.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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