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Blood. 2008 Oct 15;112(8):3455-64. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-12-129080. Epub 2008 Jul 25.

Macrophage-specific metalloelastase (MMP-12) truncates and inactivates ELR+ CXC chemokines and generates CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 antagonists: potential role of the macrophage in terminating polymorphonuclear leukocyte influx.

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Departments ofOral Biological & Medical Sciences, Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.


Through the activity of macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), we found that macrophages dampen the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)-thus providing a new mechanism for the termination of PMN recruitment in acute inflammation. MMP-12 specifically cleaves human ELR(+) CXC chemokines (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) at E-LR, the critical receptor-binding motif or, for CXCL6, carboxyl-terminal to it. Murine (m) MMP-12 also cleaves mCXCL1, -2, and -3 at E-LR. MMP-12-cleaved mCXCL2 (macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 [MIP-2]) and mCXCL3 (dendritic cell inflammatory protein-1 [DCIP-1]) lost chemotactic activity. Furthermore, MMP-12 processed and inactivated monocyte chemotactic proteins CCL2, -7, -8, and -13 at position 4-5 generating CCR antagonists. Indeed, PMNs and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly increased 72 hours after intranasal instillation of LPS in Mmp12(-/-) mice compared with wild type. Specificity occurred at 2 levels. Macrophage MMP-1 and MMP-9 did not cleave in the ELR motif. Second, unlike human ELR(+)CXC chemokines, mCXCL5 (LPS-induced CXC chemokine [LIX]) was not inactivated. Rather, mMMP-12 cleavage at Ser4-Val5 activated the chemokine, promoting enhanced PMN early infiltration in wild-type mice compared with Mmp12(-/-) mice 8 hours after LPS challenge in air pouches. We propose that the macrophage, specifically through MMP-12, assists in orchestrating the regulation of acute inflammatory responses by precise proteolysis of ELR(+)CXC and CC chemokines.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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