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Funct Integr Genomics. 2009 Feb;9(1):81-96. doi: 10.1007/s10142-008-0090-y. Epub 2008 Jul 17.

Transcript profiling in Vitis riparia during chilling requirement fulfillment reveals coordination of gene expression patterns with optimized bud break.

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Department of Horticulture, Forestry, Landscape, and Parks, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.


Endodormant grapevine buds require a period of chilling before they break and begin to grow. Custom Vitis bud cDNA microarrays (9,216 features) were used to examine gene expression patterns in overwintering Vitis riparia buds during 2,000 h of 4 degrees C chilling. Three-node cuttings collected concurrently with buds were monitored to determine dormancy status. Chilling requirement was fulfilled after 1,500 h of chilling; however, 2,000 h of chilling significantly increased the rate of bud break. Microarray analysis identified 1,469 significantly differentially expressed (p value < 0.05) array features when 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 h of chilling were compared to 500 h of chilling. Functional classification revealed that the majority of genes were involved in metabolism, cell defense/stress response, and genetic information processing. The number of significantly differentially expressed genes increased with chilling hour accumulation. The expression of a group of 130 genes constantly decreased during the chilling period. Up-regulated genes were not detected until the later stages of chilling accumulation. Hierarchical clustering of non-redundant expressed sequence tags revealed inhibition of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism and activation of genes involved in signaling and cell growth. Clusters with expression patterns associated with increased chilling and bud break were identified, indicating several candidate genes that may serve as indicators of bud chilling requirement fulfillment.

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