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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Feb;61(2):238-45. Epub 2007 Dec 10.

Metabolic consequences and therapeutic options in highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

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Diabetes Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, 384 Victoria St, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.


The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infection confers immunological and survival advantages, at the cost of induction of significant metabolic disturbances. These include insulin resistance, disturbances in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, adipocyte physiology and body fat partitioning with peripheral lipoatrophy and visceral obesity. These metabolic disturbances produce clinical manifestations which impact on the future health of the HIV-infected patient, including hyperlipidaemia, lipodystrophy, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. These conditions are evident in the relative short term as HAART (and possibly HIV infection) appears to accelerate their pathogenesis. The current understanding of the mechanisms and time courses for developing metabolic complications on HAART is reviewed in this paper. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, body fat partitioning disorders and metabolic syndrome is summarized.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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