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J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007 Jul-Sep;36(3):305-18.

The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.

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Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA.


This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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