Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Oct 5;144B(7):918-22.

The influence of urban/rural residency on depressive symptoms is moderated by the serotonin receptor 2A gene.

Author information

Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Finland.


Gene-environment interactions are thought to be involved in the development of depression. Here we examined the interaction effect between urban/rural residency and the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) gene on subclinical depressive symptoms. The participants were 1,224 Finnish men and women being followed in the on-going population-based study of "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns". Urban/rural residency was determined on the basis of a (1) subjective report and (2) the population density of the residential area. Depressive symptoms were measured in two test settings four years apart. There was a significant gene-environment interaction, such that the urban residency was associated with low depressive symptoms in individuals carrying the T/T or T/C genotype of the T102C polymorphism, but not in those carrying the C/C genotype. The T allele was associated with high depressive symptoms in remote rural areas, but with low depressive symptoms in urban or suburban areas. The gene-environment interaction was not accounted by level of education, social support, unemployment, or partnership status. The HTR2A gene may be involved in the development of depression by influencing how individuals respond to environmental conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center