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J Neurochem. 2007 Apr;101(2):355-63. Epub 2007 Jan 24.

Differential glutamate-dependent and glutamate-independent adenosine A1 receptor-mediated modulation of dopamine release in different striatal compartments.

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Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.


Adenosine and dopamine are two important modulators of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the striatum. However, conflicting reports exist about the role of adenosine and adenosine receptors in the modulation of striatal dopamine release. It has been previously suggested that adenosine A(1) receptors localized in glutamatergic nerve terminals indirectly modulate dopamine release, by their ability to modulate glutamate release. In the present study, using in vivo microdialysis, we provide evidence for the existence of a significant glutamate-independent tonic modulation of dopamine release in most of the analyzed striatal compartments. In the dorsal, but not in the ventral, part of the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), blockade of A(1) receptors by local perfusion with the selective A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine or by systemic administration of the non-selective adenosine antagonist caffeine induced a glutamate-dependent release of dopamine. On the contrary, A(1) receptor blockade induced a glutamate-independent dopamine release in the core of the NAc and the nucleus caudate-putamen. Furthermore, using immunocytochemical and functional studies in rat striatal synaptosomes, we demonstrate that a fraction of striatal dopaminergic terminals contains adenosine A(1) receptors, which directly inhibit dopamine release independently of glutamatergic transmission.

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