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Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Feb;76(2):103-12. Epub 2007 Jan 18.

Sequential induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory prostaglandins and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma during normal wound healing: a time course study.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Room J-509, Kentucky Clinic, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0284, USA.


Lipid mediators generated from metabolism of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in the initiating and resolution of acute inflammation by shifting from pro-inflammatory prostaglandin (PG) E2 to anti-inflammatory PGD2 and its metabolites. The changes in PG levels over time during the normal wound-repair process have not, however, been reported. We determined the temporal expression of PG and their biosynthetic enzymes using the full thickness incisional model of normal wound healing in mice. We demonstrate that during normal wound repair, there is a shift in the metabolism of arachidonate from PGE2 during the acute inflammatory phase to PGD2 during the repair phase. This shift is mediated by temporal changes in the expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and microsomal PGES (mPGES)-1. Inducible COX (COX-2) expression is sustained throughout the initiation and repair process, but mPGES-1 is increased only during the acute inflammatory phase and its disappearance coincides with increased PGD2. PGD2 and its degradation products are known to mediate their anti-inflammatory effects by binding to peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). In this study, we show that PPARgamma is upregulated during the resolution phase of wound repair concomitant with the shift to PGD2, and may be responsible for initiating endogenous mechanism resulting in healing/resolution.

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