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Vaccine. 2007 Jul 26;25(30):5665-70. Epub 2007 Jan 4.

Novel marker vaccines against classical swine fever.

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Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Boddenblick 5a, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.


Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs worldwide. For eradication and control purposes, CSF vaccination is an important tool, and efficacious and safe attenuated vaccines have been available for many decades (for example, the C-strain vaccines). In addition to administering them parenterally, live attenuated vaccines are also administered orally for the control and eradication of CSF in wild boar populations. However, antibodies against live attenuated vaccines do not allow to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle) and the mechanism responsible for attenuation is not known. Only a few years ago the first DIVA vaccines based on baculovirus-expressed E2 glycoprotein have been put on the market [Hulst MM, Westra DF, Wensvoort G, Moormann RJ. Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera. J Virol 1993;67(9):5435-42]. However, these subunit E2 marker vaccines are less efficient and more than one parenteral application is necessary. Furthermore, oral vaccination is not possible. Taking these disadvantages into account, the development of novel CSF vaccines has been focussed on five different strategies, mainly based on genetically engineered constructs: (1) immunogenic CSFV peptides, (2) DNA vaccines, (3) viral vectors expressing CSFV proteins, (4) chimeric pestiviruses, and (5) trans-complemented deleted CSFV genomes (replicons).

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