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Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):997-1001. Epub 2006 Oct 12.

RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates.

Author information

1
Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK.

Abstract

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral replication is believed to be the critical trigger for activation of antiviral immunity mediated by the RNA helicase enzymes retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). We showed that influenza A virus infection does not generate dsRNA and that RIG-I is activated by viral genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) bearing 5'-phosphates. This is blocked by the influenza protein nonstructured protein 1 (NS1), which is found in a complex with RIG-I in infected cells. These results identify RIG-I as a ssRNA sensor and potential target of viral immune evasion and suggest that its ability to sense 5'-phosphorylated RNA evolved in the innate immune system as a means of discriminating between self and nonself.

PMID:
17038589
DOI:
10.1126/science.1132998
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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