Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurosci Res. 2006 Sep;84(4):832-40.

Neurovascular and neuronal protection by E64d after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

Author information

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, California 92354, USA.


Calpains and cathepsins are two families of proteases that play an important role in ischemic cell death. In this study, we investigated the effect of E64d, a mu-calpain and cathepsin B inhibitor, in the prevention of neuronal and endothelial apoptotic cell death after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Rats underwent 2 hr of transient focal ischemia from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were sacrificed 24 hr later. E64d (5 mg/ kg intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min before MCAO. Assessment included neurological function, infarction volume, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The E64d-treated rats had significant brain protection against ischemic damage. We observed a reduction of infarction volume, brain edema, and improved neurological scores in E64d-treated rats compared with the nontreated control. Furthermore, there was a remarkable reduction in both proteases and caspase-3 activation and apoptotic changes in both neurons and endothelial cells in E64d-treated rats. These results suggest that E64d protects the brain against ischemic/reperfusion injury by attenuating neuronal and endothelial apoptosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center