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Neurosci Lett. 2006 Feb 20;394(3):184-9. Epub 2005 Nov 16.

Autophagy of amyloid beta-protein in differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to oxidative stress.

Author information

1
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58185 Linköping, Sweden. linzh@inr.liu.se

Abstract

Oxidative stress is considered important for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is characterized by the formation of senile plaques rich in amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). Abeta cytotoxicity has been found dependent on lysosomes, which are abundant in AD neurons and are shown to partially co-localize with Abeta. To determine whether oxidative stress has any influence on the relationship between lysosomes and Abeta1-42 (the most toxic form of Abeta), we studied the effect of hyperoxia (40% versus 8% ambient oxygen) on the intracellular localization of Abeta1-42 (assessed by immunocytochemistry) in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintained in serum-free OptiMEM medium. In control cells, Abeta1-42 was mainly localized to small non-lysosomal cytoplasmic granules. Only occasionally Abeta1-42 was found in large (over 1 microm) lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 positive vacuoles, devoid of the early endosomal marker rab5. These large Abeta1-42 -containing lysosomes were not detectable in the presence of serum (known to suppress autophagy), while their number increased dramatically (up to 24-fold) after exposure of cells to hyperoxia during 5 days. Activation of autophagy by hyperoxia was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, an inhibitor of autophagic sequestration 3-methyladenine prevented the accumulation of Abeta1-42 -positive lysosomes due to hyperoxia. In parallel experiments, intralysosomal accumulation of Abeta1-40 following oxidative stress has been found as well. The results suggest that Abeta can be autophagocytosed and its accumulation within neuronal lysosomes is enhanced by oxidative stress.

PMID:
16297550
DOI:
10.1016/j.neulet.2005.10.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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