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Carcinogenesis. 2005 Feb;26(2):429-40. Epub 2004 Nov 11.

1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is a preventive factor in the metastasis of lung cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyamakita-machi, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 658-8558, Japan.

Abstract

1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)], the major regulator of calcium homeostasis, has potent antiproliferative and anti-invasive properties in vitro in cancer cells. Studies in vivo demonstrated that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) slows the progression of breast, prostate and other carcinomas. A key question is whether 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) exerts its anticarcinogenic effects in vivo by a mechanism that is dependent on its capacity to limit the proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro. It has not been clear whether the calcemic activity and regulation of the host defenses by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) contribute to the effect on cancer cells. In this study we have focused on the influence of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the metastasis of lung cancer, without involvement of the calcemic activity and other effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the host. We used metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells expressing green fluorescent protein (LLC-GFP cells) and examined metastatic activity in vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mutant (VDR(-/-)) mice and their wild-type counterparts (VDR(+/+) mice). VDR(-/-) mice exhibit hypocalcemia and extremely high serum levels of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). We expected that serum 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) would act in vivo to directly inhibit the metastatic growth of VDR-positive LLC-GFP cells in VDR(-/-) mice. The metastatic activities of LLC-GFP cells were remarkably reduced in VDR(-/-) mice compared with VDR(+/+) mice. To test the hypothesis that serum 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) is an intrinsic factor that inhibits metastatic growth of lung cancer cells, we corrected hypocalcemia and/or hypervitaminosis D in VDR(-/-) mice by dietary manipulation. The metastatic growth of LLC-GFP cells was remarkably reduced in response to serum levels of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), but not to serum calcium levels. Furthermore, we found that VDR(+/+) mice fed the manipulated diets displayed an apparent inverse relationship between the physiological levels of serum 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) (8-15 pg/ml) and tumorigenesis. Here we show that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibits the metastatic growth of lung cancer cells in a defined animal model.

PMID:
15539405
DOI:
10.1093/carcin/bgh332
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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