Send to

Choose Destination
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 1;37 Suppl 2:S110-8.

Interventions for seropositive injectors-research and evaluation: an integrated behavioral intervention with HIV-positive injection drug users to address medical care, adherence, and risk reduction.

Author information

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.



Behavioral interventions to address the complex medical and HIV risk reduction needs of HIV-seropositive (HIV-positive) injection drug users (IDUs) are urgently needed. We describe the development of Interventions for Seropositive Injectors-Research and Evaluation (INSPIRE), a randomized controlled trial of an integrated intervention for HIV-positive IDUs, and the characteristics of the baseline sample.


HIV-positive IDUs were recruited from community settings in 4 US cities. After completing a baseline assessment, participants who attended the first session were randomly assigned to (1) a 10-session peer mentoring intervention designed to improve utilization of HIV care, to improve adherence to HIV medications, and to reduce sexual and injection risk or (2) an 8-session videotape control. Periodic follow-up for 12 months is ongoing.


A total of 1161 HIV-positive IDUs completed the baseline assessment, and 966 (83%) were randomized. Retention rates are greater than 80% for all follow-up periods. Approximately 79% of baseline participants reported a recent medical visit, 49% were taking highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 19% had an undetectable viral load. Use of injection and noninjection substances was prevalent, and sexual and injection risks were each reported by more than 25% of participants.


There is a need for an integrated intervention for HIV-positive IDUs, and these data show the acceptability of such an approach.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center