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Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2004 Aug;14(4):341-65.

On dense granular flows.


The behaviour of dense assemblies of dry grains submitted to continuous shear deformation has been the subject of many experiments and discrete particle simulations. This paper is a collective work carried out among the French research group Groupement de Recherche Milieux Divis├ęs (GDR MiDi). It proceeds from the collection of results on steady uniform granular flows obtained by different groups in six different geometries both in experiments and numerical works. The goal is to achieve a coherent presentation of the relevant quantities to be measured i.e. flowing thresholds, kinematic profiles, effective friction, etc. First, a quantitative comparison between data coming from different experiments in the same geometry identifies the robust features in each case. Second, a transverse analysis of the data across the different configurations, allows us to identify the relevant dimensionless parameters, the different flow regimes and to propose simple interpretations. The present work, more than a simple juxtaposition of results, demonstrates the richness of granular flows and underlines the open problem of defining a single rheology.

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