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Science. 2004 May 7;304(5672):881-3.

The involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in remote contextual fear memory.

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Departments of Neurobiology, Psychiatry, Psychology and Brain Research Institute, UCLA, 695 Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1761, USA.


Although the molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms required for initial memory processing have been intensively investigated, those underlying permanent memory storage remain elusive. We present neuroanatomical, pharmacological, and genetic results demonstrating that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a critical role in remote memory for contextual fear conditioning. Imaging of activity-dependent genes shows that the anterior cingulate is activated by remote memory and that this activation is impaired by a null alpha-CaMKII mutation that blocks remote memory. Accordingly, reversible inactivation of this structure in normal mice disrupts remote memory without affecting recent memory.

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