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AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004 Feb;25(2):222-32.

The insula: anatomic study and MR imaging display at 1.5 T.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Section of Neuropathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The insula is important for gustatory sensation, motor speech control, vestibular function, and sympathetic control of cardiovascular tone. The purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses: 1) gross anatomic study of the insula will disclose reproducible patterns of insular structure, and 2) analysis of MR appearance will enable physicians to recognize these patterns on imaging studies.

METHODS:

Gross insular anatomy was determined in 16 normal human cadaveric hemispheres. The 1.5-T MR images of 300 insulae were analyzed to determine the gyral and sulcal patterns displayed; their relationship to the Heschl gyrus, to the overlying opercula, and to the vertical planes perpendicular to the Talairach-Tournoux baseline at the anterior commissure (VAC) and posterior commissure (VPC); their continuity into the orbitofrontal cortex; and appropriate landmarks for the anterior border, apex, and posterior border of the insula.

RESULTS:

MR images displayed the central sulcus of the insula (97%); the anterior (99%), middle (78%), and posterior (98%) short insular gyri that converge to the apex (100%) anteriorly; and the anterior (99%) and posterior (58%) long insular gyri posteriorly. The middle short gyrus was often hypoplastic (33%). The anterior intersections of the internal and external capsules typically delimit the anterior insular border (87%). VAC intersects the anterior insula (99%), usually at the precentral sulcus. The Heschl gyrus circumscribes the posteroinferior insula (100%). VPC demarcates the posterior insular border (94%).

CONCLUSION:

The two hypotheses were proved correct. The insula shows reproducible patterns of gross anatomy that are demonstrable on routine clinical MR images obtained at 1.5 T.

PMID:
14970021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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