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J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 13;279(7):5460-9. Epub 2003 Nov 26.

Regulation of immunoglobulin promoter activity by TFII-I class transcription factors.

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Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, USA.


The restriction of immunoglobulin variable region promoter activity to B lymphocytes is a well known paradigm of promoter specificity. Recently, a cis-element, located downstream of the transcription initiation site of murine heavy chain variable promoters, was shown to be critical for B cell activity and specificity. Here we show that mutation of this element, termed DICE (Downstream Immunoglobulin Control Element), reduces in vivo activity in B cells. Gel mobility shift assays show that DICE forms B cell-specific complexes that were also sensitive to DICE mutation. DICE mutation strongly reduces the ability of a distal immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer to stimulate transcription. We also identify a DICE-interacting factor: a TFII-I-related protein known as BEN (also termed Mus-TRD1 and WBSCR11). Dominant-negative and RNAi-mediated knockdown experiments indicate that BEN can both positively and negatively regulate IgH promoter activity, depending on the cell line.

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